The outgrowth of the mucous membrane of the sinuses, like grapes, is called a “polyps”; nasal polyposis. Polyps can also be seen in other organs (ear, vocal cord, stomach, intestines).
Nasal polyps are soft, pale colored, overhanging grape-shaped structures.
Prolonged stimulation of the mucous membrane of the nose and sinuses due to various causes (such as sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis) causes polyp formation.
Polyps prevent nasal airflow and cause nasal congestion, thus mouth breathing and snoring, headache, recurrent sinusitis and olfactory disorders.
Nasal polyps are more common in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, analgesic intolerance or cystic fibrosis. Allergy control facilitates the treatment of polyps in polyp patients with allergic rhinitis. Likewise, in patients with analgesic intolerance, avoidance of related analgesics affects the treatment positively.
Polyps do not disappear on their own, they need to be treated. While very small polyps at the initial stage may respond completely to medical treatment, large and widespread polyps show a partial response to medical treatment. Patients with extensive nasal polyps require surgical intervention in addition to medical treatment.
Steroids are very effective in the medical treatment of polyps. Steroids can be taken orally as a pill or used as a nasal spray. Although the pills are more effective, care should be taken because of their side effects.
Before the operation, the patient’s sinus tomography is taken. This film shows the extent of the polyp and helps to determine the places to be intervened. This tomography is used as a surgical map during surgery. This map guides the surgeon during surgery and many serious complications that may occur during surgery are prevented.
With the help of an endoscope, polyps are removed endoscopically from inside the nose and sinuses. During the procedure, instruments specially developed for this surgery are used.
In patients without concomitant disease, the probability of recurrence of nasal polyps after treatment is 10%. Nasal polyps are more likely to recur in patients with co-morbidities such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, analgesic intolerance, or cystic fibrosis. Therefore, repetitive surgical interventions and recurrent medical treatments are inevitable in these patients.